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Vitamin Summary

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Fat-soluble vitamins | Significant sources | Deficiency | Toxicity | Vitamin A * Retinol * Retinal * Retinoic acid * Carotenoid : beta-carotene (precursors)Functions : * Vision maintenance of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous membranes, skin; * bone and tooth growth; * reproduction; immunity | Retinol: fortified milk, cheese,cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liverBeta-carotene: spinach and other dark leafy greens; broccoli, deep orange fruits (apricots, cantaloupe) and vegetables (squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin) | Diseases : Hypovitaminosis ASymptoms : Night blindness, corneal drying (xerosis), triangular gray spots on eye (Bitot’s spots), softening of the cornea (keratomalacia), and corneal degeneration and blindness (xerophthalmia); impaired immunity (infectious diseases); plugging of hair follicles with keratin, forming white lumps (hyperkeratosis) | Diseases : Hypervitaminosis ASymptoms : Chronic : Increased activity of osteoclastsb causing reduced bone density; liver abnormalities; birth defectsAcute : Blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, vertigo; increase of pressure inside skull, mimicking brain tumor; headaches; muscle incoordination | Vitamin D * ergocalciferol (vitamin D2): vitamin D derived from plants in the diet and made from the yeast and plant sterol ergosterol. * cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or calciol): vitamin D derived from animals in the diet or made in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor of cholesterol, with the help of sunlight. * calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D): vitamin D found in the blood that is made from the hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in the liver. * calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D): vitamin D that is made from the hydroxylation of calcidiol in the kidneys; the biologically active hormone, sometimes called active vitamin D.Functions : * Mineralization of bones (raises blood calcium and phosphorus by increasing absorption from digestive tract, withdrawing calcium from bones,stimulating retention by kidneys) | Synthesized in the body with the help of sunlight; fortified milk, margarine, butter, juices, cereals, and chocolate mixes; veal, beef, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish (herring, salmon, sardines) and their oils | Diseases : Rickets,osteomalaciaSymptoms : * Rickets in Children * Inadequate calcification, resulting in misshapen bones (bowing of legs); enlargement of ends of long bones (knees, wrists); deformities of ribs (bowed, with beads or knobs);a delayed closing of fontanel, resulting in rapid enlargement of head; lax muscles resulting in protrusion of abdomen; muscle spasms * Osteomalacia or Osteoporosis in Adults * Loss of calcium, resulting in soft, flexible, brittle, and deformed bones; progressive weakness; pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs | Diseases : Hypervitaminosis DSymptoms : Elevated blood calcium; calcification of softtissues (blood vessels, kidneys, heart, lungs, tissues around joints) | Vitamin E * Alpha-tocopherolFunctions : Antioxidant (stabilization of cell membranes, regulation of oxidation reactions,protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids[PUFA] and vitamin A) | Polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine, salad dressings, shortenings), leafy green vege (spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, broccoli),wheat germ, whole grains, liver, egg yolks, nuts, seeds, fatty meatsEasily destroyed by heat & oxygen | Symptoms : Red blood cell breakage,a nerve damage | Symptoms : Augments the effects of anticlotting medicationHigh doses vit E may interfere blood-clotting action of vit K and enhance effects of drugs used to oppose blood clotting, causes hemorrhage. | Vitamin K * Phylloquinone * menaquinone * menadione * naphthoquinoneFunctions : Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone proteins | * Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract Vitamin K needs cannot be met from bacterial synthesis alone; however, it is a potentially important source in the small intestine, where absorption efficiency ranges from 40 to 70 percent. * a liver * leafy green vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables * milk | HemorrhagingVitamin K is a cofactor for a carboxylase enzyme. When vitamin K is inadequate, osteocalcin is undercarboxylated and therefore less effective in binding calcium. | None known | Water-soluble vitamins | Significant sources | Deficiency | Toxicity | Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)Functions : Part of coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate)used in energy metabolism | Whole-grain, fortified, or enriched grain products; moderate amounts in all nutritious food; porkEasily destroyed by heat | Diseases : Beriberi (wet, with edema; dry, with musclewasting)Symptoms : Enlarged heart, cardiac failure; muscularweakness; apathy, poor short-term memory, confusion, irritability; anorexia,weight lossSevere thiamin deficiency is often related to heavy alcohol consumption with limited food consumption (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). | None reported | Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)Functions: Part of coenzymes FMN (flavin mononucleotide)and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) used in energy metabolism | Milk products (yogurt, cheese); whole-grain,fortified, or enriched grain products; liverEasily destroyed by ultraviolet light and irradiation | Diseases : AriboflavinosisSymptoms : Sore throat; cracks and redness at corners of mouth;a painful, smooth, purplish red tongue; inflammation characterized by skin lesions covered with greasy scalesCracks at the corners of the mouth are called angular stomatitis or cheilosis.Smoothness of the tongue is caused by loss of its surface structures and is termed glossitis. | None reported | vitamin B3 (Niacin) * Nicotinic acid, * nicotinamide, * niacinamide, * dietary tryptophan (precursor) Functions : Part of coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (its phosphate form) used in energy metabolism | Milk, eggs, meat, poultry, fish; whole-grain, fortified, and enriched grain products; nutsand all protein-containing foods | Diseases : PellagraSymptoms : Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting; inflamed, swollen, smooth, bright red tongue (glossitis); depression,apathy, fatigue, loss of memory, headache; bilateral symmetrical rash on areasexposed to sunlight | Painful flush, hives, and rash (“niacin flush”); nausea and vomiting; liver damage, impaired glucose tolerance | Biotin Functions : Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism,fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis | Widespread in foods; liver, egg yolks, soybeans, fish, whole grains; also produced byGI bacteria | Depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numb or tingling sensation in the arms and legs; red, scaly rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth;hair loss | None reported | Pantothenic AcidFunctions : Part of coenzyme A, used in energy metabolism | Widespread in foods; chicken, beef, potatoes,oats, tomatoes, liver, egg yolk, broccoli, whole grainsEasily destroyed by food processing | Vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps; insomnia, fatigue, depression, irritability, restlessness, apathy; hypoglycemia, increased sensitivity to insulin; numbness, muscle cramps, inability to walk | None reported | Vitamin B6 * Pyridoxine * Pyridoxal * PyridoxamineFunctions : * Part of coenzymes PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) and PMP (pyridoxamine phosphate) used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism * helps to convert tryptophan to niacin and to serotonin * helps to make red blood cells | Meats, fish, poultry, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, legumes, noncitrus fruits, fortified cereals, liver, soy productsEasily destroyed by heat | Scaly dermatitis; anemia (small-cell type); depression, confusion, convulsionsSmall-cell-type anemia is called microcytic anemia | Depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches, nerve damage causing numbness and muscleweakness leading to an inability to walk and convulsions; skin lesions | Folate * Folic acid * Folacin * pteroylglutamic acid (PGA)Functions : Part of coenzymes THF (tetrahydrofolate) and DHF (dihydrofolate) used in DNA synthesis and therefore important in new cell formation | Fortified grains, leafy green vegetables, legumes, seeds, liverEasily destroyed by heat and oxygen | Anemia (large-cell type); smooth, red tongue; mental confusion, weakness, fatigue,irritability, headache; shortness of breath; elevated homocysteineLarge-cell-type anemia is known as either macrocytic or megaloblastic anemia.Smoothness of the tongue is caused by loss of its surface structures and is termed glossitis | Masks vitamin B12–deficiency symptoms | Vitamin B12Cobalamin (and related forms)Functions : Part of coenzymes methylcobalamin and deoxyadenosylcobalamin used in new cell synthesis; helps to maintain nerve cells; reformsfolate coenzyme; helps to break down some fatty acids and amino acids | Foods of animal origin (meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, milk, cheese, eggs), fortified cerealsEasily destroyed by microwave cooking | Diseases : Pernicious anemiaSymptomsAnemia (large-cell type); fatigue, degeneration of peripheral nerves progressing to paralysis; sore tongue, loss of appetite, constipationThe name pernicious anemia refers to the vitamin B12 defi ciency caused by atrophic gastritis and a lack of intrinsic factor, but not to that caused by inadequate dietary intake.Large-cell-type anemia is known as either macrocytic or megaloblastic anemia. | None reported | CholineFunctions : Needed for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the phospholipid lecithin | Milk, liver, eggs, peanuts | Liver damage | Body odor, sweating, salivation, reduced growth rate, low b.p , liver damage | Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)Functions : Collagen synthesis (strengthens blood vessel walls, forms scar tissue, provides matrix for bone growth), antioxidant, thyroxin synthesis,amino acid metabolism, strengthens resistance to infection, helps in absorption of iron | Citrus fruits, cabbage-type vegetables (such as brussels sprouts and cauliflower), dark green vegetables (such as bell peppers and broccoli), cantaloupe, strawberries, lettuce, tomatoes, potatoes, papayas, mangoesEasily destroyed by heat and oxygen | Diseases : ScurvySymptoms : Anemia (small-cell type), atherosclerotic plaques, pinpoint hemorrhages; bone fragility, joint pain; poor wound healing, frequent infections; bleeding gums, loosened teeth; muscle degeneration, pain, hysteria, depression; rough skin, blotchy bruisesSmall-cell-type anemia is microcytic anemia.People with kidney disease, a tendency toward gout, or a genetic abnormality that alters the breakdown of vitamin C are prone to forming kidney stones. Vitamin C is inactivated and degraded by several routes, sometimes producing oxalate, which can form stones in the kidneys. | Nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; headache, fatigue, insomnia; hot flashes; rashes; interference with medical tests, aggravation of gout symptoms,urinary tract problems, kidney stones |

Summary a) Vitamin E protects vitamin A from oxidation. In vitamin E deficiency, vitamin A absorption and storage are impaired. b) Vitamin A, D and K play important roles in bone growth and remodelling. Vitamin K helps synthesize a specific bone protein, vitamin D regulates that synthesis. Vitamin A may control which bone-building genes respond to vitamin D. c) Vitamin E interferes with vitamin K activity, especially blood clotting, but mechanisms for interaction remain a mystery. d) Vitamin D and calcium calcium co-operate in bone formation. e) Zinc is required for the synthesis of vitamin A’s transport protein, retinol-binding protein. Zinc also assists the enzyme that regenerates retinal from retinol in the eye. f) Vitamin A defiency and iron defiency often occur together, and each seems to worsen the other’s metabolism.…...

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