Free Essay

Weighted Color and Texture Sample Selection for Image Matting

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By bajvivek
Words 486
Pages 2
Weighted Color and Texture Sample Selection for
Image Matting
The mainstay of the project is a new non-parametric sampling based method is presented that uses texture as an additional feature for the matting task.

Digital matting refers to the accurate extraction of foreground objects from an image here part of the regions in the object could have contributions from the background. This contribution is incorporated into a compositing equation in the form of opacity α of a pixel; the equation expresses the observed color value of a pixel as a convex combination of foreground (F) and background (B) colors. The opacity takes value in the range [0, 1], with 0 indicating that the pixel is from the background and 1 indicating that it is from the foreground. Estimating the digital matte is useful in image and video editing tasks such as background replacement.


Poisson matting, Closed-form matting and Non local matting. The assumptions of large kernels by and local color line of are relaxed in KNN matting using non local principles and K nearest neighbors, SVR Matting, Bayesian Matting, and Robust Matting.

In this paper, a new non-parametric sampling based method is presented that uses texture as an additional feature for the matting task. Our sampling strategy considers both local boundary as well as global samples, where the former implies samples collected from the boundaries of known regions while the latter implies that samples are collected from diverse locations in the image. Local and global candidate sets of F and B samples are collected and a new objective function is formulated that combines color and texture statistics to determine the best samples that represent the true foreground and background of unknown pixels. Finally, the estimated mattes are refined using conventional Laplacian approach.

MODULES: MODULE I Region Selection: Input Image foreground and background region selected by different colors like black and red. Then constant map and constant values are calculated for find alpha matt. The Selected regions are used for find alpha matt with foreground, background, unknown regions.

MODULE II Find Alpha Matt: Local and global candidate sets of F and B samples are collected and a new objective function is formulated that combines color and texture statistics to determine the best samples that represent the true foreground and background of unknown pixels. Finally, the estimated mattes are refined using conventional Laplacian approach

MODULE III Post Processing: The alpha matte obtained by estimating α for each pixel using the best (F, B) pair is further refined to obtain a smooth matte by considering correlation between neighboring pixels. Foreground region extracted from input image perfectly. Our Method uses texture to complement color in extracting accurate mattes in images when foreground and background colors overlap.

System Requirements:



PC, Pentium 4 processor, 1 GB RAM, CPU 3.06 GHz…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Digital Image Processing

...Digital Image Processing: PIKS Inside, Third Edition. William K. Pratt Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0-471-37407-5 (Hardback); 0-471-22132-5 (Electronic) DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING PIKS Inside Third Edition WILLIAM K. PRATT PixelSoft, Inc. Los Altos, California A Wiley-Interscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York • Chichester • Weinheim • Brisbane • Singapore • Toronto Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. In all instances where John Wiley & Sons, Inc., is aware of a claim, the product names appear in initial capital or all capital letters. Readers, however, should contact the appropriate companies for more complete information regarding trademarks and registration. Copyright  2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including uploading, downloading, printing, decompiling, recording or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the Publisher. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ @ WILEY.COM. This publication is......

Words: 173795 - Pages: 696

Free Essay

A Mirror Image

...November 19, 2010 A Mirror Image With the use of black cutouts Kara Walker is able to depict images that create challenging questions about power, race and sex. In her work You Do her simple powerful style asks some of these questions. It is through this style that Kara Walker shows that art can be powerful with the use of only a few elements in design. In a representational work of art, Kara Walker shows how the use of multiple line styles can unite a piece of art. Much of the work in this piece is connected by curvilinear lines leaving only one object separated from the rest. This object, in the lower left corner depicts a man carrying a cane. This cane, one of the only straight lines in the work other than the pins in the doll, is a straight line and can be considered pointing to the figures in the middle of the work. This straight line shows an implied line as this seems to be pointing up and directing attention. It is through this implied line that the connection from this alone object is connected to the rest of the art work. Through the use of romantic line quality this work contains heavy lines with sharp edges. This is due to the creation process. The cutout silhouettes are drawn by the artist first then they are cutout using an X-acto knife (Riley). It is through this method that the work has clear sharp edges creating the lines. These two dimensional shapes can only be imagined as life like. They carry no visual texture or color to give the......

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...I enjoy color, whether it is my crisp clothes or the blinking light of my alarm clock. Like some grand accomplishment of constructing an Academy Awards outfit, I stare in awe at my closet, my source of pride. “Okay, school-bus yellow is darker than lemon yellow,” I tell myself as I meticulously rearrange my color-coordinated clothes. As I look at my variegated shirt selection, I revel in my need for joyous color and expression. Because, you see, my everyday life is colorless, gray - dark and full of challenges. Catching the bus at 6:35 (nope, no car for me) and helping my mom (single parent at that) cook, budget, and pinch pennies - these are the realities of life. It’s not unfair, but it’s hard nonetheless. I make the best of it in my search for color, my search for illustration, my search for self. Taking a look at my closet, which is essentially a reflection of my chirpy persona, one would notice that I own few solid shirts. That would be boring - the antithesis of everything I represent. I need vibrancy; I need sizzle; I need dimension. Plaids, stripes, and eye-boggling outfits fulfill this yearning. Each color contributes to my message. Although most guys would be frightened to wear one, I’m not afraid to sport a salmon-pink rugby shirt or a rich Tyrian purple T-shirt. Because my father was never around and I didn’t have the whole father-son experience with football and no-girls-allowed playhouses, my colorful world has taken a new hue. So, while the “big game” is......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Employee Selection

...Personnel Review 28,1/2 134 Received October 1996 Revised/Accepted October 1997 Employee selection: a question of structure Jean M. Barclay Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK Keywords Employee selection, Interviews, Selection, United Kingdom Abstract The first part of a larger study into organisations’ use of structured interviewing techniques. Discusses reasons for continued popularity of interviewing in selection, despite its shortcomings. Considers the use of two structured interviewing techniques to improve selection: behavioural and situational questioning. Presents the findings of a large scale survey of UK organisations’ use of these techniques. The use of structured interviewing is rapidly increasing and is used by all sizes of organisation. Behavioural interviewing is being used more than situational interviewing, and many respondents use both techniques. Structured techniques are most commonly used for management posts. Discusses links with competency based HRM and roles of line managers and HR specialists in selection. Areas for further research are outlined. Introduction Interviewing is still the most commonly used method of selection in employment, in spite of the fact that many studies have shown it to be a very flawed technique. Given the preference of managers and human resource practitioners for interviewing, structured interviewing techniques have been suggested as a means of improving validity. Much of the research into these interviewing......

Words: 7061 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

The Evolution of Human Skin Color

...NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE The Evolution of Human Skin Color by Annie Prud’homme-Généreux Life Sciences Quest University, Canada Part I – Skin Cancer “Stop it!” called Tatiana, playfully. Her boyfriend, Zach, was inspecting her skin very carefully. “Look,” he answered her, his voice taking on a more serious tone. “Today a woman walked into the clinic for her annual physical. Everything about her seemed fine. She leads a balanced lifestyle, she eats well, she exercises: she’s healthy! But as she was about to leave, I noticed a mole on her arm. It had many of the warning signs of skin cancer. So, I removed the mole. This woman now has to wait for the lab results to see if it was cancerous. If it is, maybe we caught it early enough to treat it, and maybe not. Either way, her life is changed. I just want to make sure you don’t have any suspicious moles, okay?” Tatiana relented and allowed Zach to examine her skin. She asked: “Do only white people get skin cancer?” “No, people of all skin tone can get skin cancer, but it does occur more frequently in Caucasians.” Questions 1. What are the causes of skin cancer? 2. Why are Caucasians more at risk of skin cancer than other populations? 3. At what age does skin cancer typically occur? Is the incidence of skin cancer greater in youth or old age? “The Evolution of Human Skin Color” by Annie Prud’homme-Généreux Page 1 NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part II – Skin......

Words: 4390 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Equally Weighted Portfoili

...Why Does an Equal-Weighted Portfolio Outperform Value- and Price-Weighted Portfolios March 2012 Yuliya Plyakha Raman Uppal Goethe University Frankfurt EDHEC Business School Grigory Vilkov Goethe University Frankfurt Abstract We compare the performance of equal-, value-, and price-weighted portfolios of stocks in the major U.S. equity indices over the last four decades. We find that the equal-weighted portfolio with monthly rebalancing outperforms the value- and price-weighted portfolios in terms of total mean return, four factor alpha, Sharpe ratio, and certainty-equivalent return, even though the equal-weighted portfolio has greater portfolio risk. The total return of the equal-weighted portfolio exceeds that of the value- and price-weighted because the equal-weighted portfolio has both a higher return for bearing systematic risk and a higher alpha measured using the four-factor model. The nonparametric monotonicity relation test indicates that the differences in the total return of the equal-weighted portfolio and the value- and price-weighted portfolios is monotonically related to size, price, liquidity and idiosyncratic volatility. The higher systematic return of the equal-weighted portfolio arises from its higher exposure to the market, size, and value factors. The higher alpha of the equal-weighted portfolio arises from the monthly rebalancing required to maintain equal weights, which is a contrarian strategy that exploits reversal and idiosyncratic......

Words: 15595 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

Image Theory

...meaningful changes in image sequences. Object extraction and tracking data are represented as an attributed tracking graph (ATG), whose connected subgraphs are compared using an adaptive information distance measure, aided by a closed-form multi-dimensional quantization. The summary is the clustering result and feature subset that maximize the gap statistic. The notion of meaningful summarization is captured by using the gap statistic to estimate the randomness deficiency from algorithmic statistics. When applied to movies of cultured neural progenitor cells, it correctly distinguished neurons from progenitors without requiring the use of a fixative stain. When analyzing intra-cellular molecular transport in cultured neurons undergoing axon specification, it automatically confirmed the role of kinesins in axon specification. Finally, it was able to differentiate wild type from genetically modified thymocyte cells. Index Terms: Algorithmic information theory, Algorithmic statistics, Information distance, Gap statistic, Clustering. Various portions of this research were supported by the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems, under the Engineering Research Centers Program of the National Science Foundation (Award Number EEC-9986821), and by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 1. INTRODUCTION Given a set of image sequences, we propose unsupervised algorithms that can compute a concise and meaningful summary of the changes occurring within and across the image sequences.......

Words: 3769 - Pages: 16

Free Essay


...Analysis of SVD based Image Fusion: A review xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx ABSTRACT: In this paper, we have reviewed different types of Image fusion techniques based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique. Basically, Image fusion can be described as a technique which is used to generate a single good quality image from one or more images. Image fusion can be applied at many levels viz. pixel level, feature level, signal level and decision level. Image fusion can be applied in many areas like recognition of patterns, to enhance visual features, detection of objects, area surveillance etc.[2] The techniques that are used mostly are Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS), high pass filtering, principal component analysis (PCA), different arithmetic combinations, multi resolution analysis based methods (pyramid algorithm and wavelet transform), Artificial Neural Networks(ANN), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) etc.[4] Nowadays, SVD is becoming very popular technique for image fusion due to many factors like conceptuality, stability and it is also a robust and reliable orthogonal decomposition technique. A huge advantage of SVD is that it can also adjust the variations that are present in the local statistics of an image[2]. In this paper, we have compared and reviewed different types of modifications that can be added to the basic SVD technique. Keywords: Singular Value Decomposition, Tensors, Image fusion. 1. INTRODUCTION ......

Words: 2109 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Appliication of Image Search Engine

...IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING, VOL. 25, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2013 2257 iLike: Bridging the Semantic Gap in Vertical Image Search by Integrating Text and Visual Features Yuxin Chen, Student Member, IEEE, Hariprasad Sampathkumar, Student Member, IEEE, Bo Luo, Member, IEEE Computer Society, and Xue-wen Chen, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract—With the development of Internet and Web 2.0, large-volume multimedia contents have been made available online. It is highly desired to provide easy accessibility to such contents, i.e., efficient and precise retrieval of images that satisfies users’ needs. Toward this goal, content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been intensively studied in the research community, while text-based search is better adopted in the industry. Both approaches have inherent disadvantages and limitations. Therefore, unlike the great success of text search, web image search engines are still premature. In this paper, we present iLike, a vertical image search engine that integrates both textual and visual features to improve retrieval performance. We bridge the semantic gap by capturing the meaning of each text term in the visual feature space, and reweight visual features according to their significance to the query terms. We also bridge the user intention gap because we are able to infer the “visual meanings” behind the textual queries. Last but not least, we provide a visual thesaurus, which is generated from the statistical......

Words: 11319 - Pages: 46

Free Essay


...weighs 20 pounds when placed in a stack of 500 sheets. Instead of 20 lb., the term sub 20 may be used. Sub weight (short for substance weight) means the same thing as weight; however, the term is used for paper grades with a 17 x 22 sheet size, such as bond, wove and kraft. Brightness is the measure of paper’s ability to reflect light, which is rated on a scale from 0-100. The purpose of paper is to reflect light allowing ink to absorb specific light waves. Paper affects the color the eye perceives because all paper absorbs some light and factors such as shade and gloss affect how brightness is assessed. Whiteness depends on how evenly the colors in the visible spectrum are reflected. If more blue than red and yellow is reflected, a cool tinge and brighter appearance results. When printing blues and blacks, cool white tends to brighten colors. In printing reds and yellows, a warm white sheet makes color appear clearer and stronger. Neutral balanced sheets will reflect all colors equally and result in accurate color reproduction. Brightness is increased by adding bleach, optical brighteners, fillers and fluorescent dyes. Opacity is very important to the final appearance of the project. Opacity is the degree to which light shows through the paper from the backside. In ot her words, it’s the property of the paper that obstructs light and prevents print on one side from showing through on the other. Paper opacity is rated from 1-100. The higher the rating, the more opaque the......

Words: 21505 - Pages: 87

Free Essay

Color Palettes

...Color Palettes Ang mga color palettes ay parang mga reference tools na ginagamit ng mga editor kapag gumagawa sila ng book covers, especially sa mga genre na hindi masyadong ginagamitan ng blending (i.e. Romance-Comedy, Humor) at sa mga graphic katulad ng typography, posters, bookmarks, etc. I will give you some tips and tricks on finding the perfect color palette for your graphic. Maraming color palettes na makikita sa Google, Tumblr, at sa isa sa mga pinaka-malaking color palette sharing communities, ang ColourLovers. (click external link; it will redirect you to ColourLover’s homepage.) [1] In searching color palettes, importante na alam niyo yung theme ng graphic ninyo. Kunware eh, ang theme ng graphic na gusto ninyong gawin e summer o kaya beach, pwede niyo yun i-search sa ColourLovers. Just find the search bar then type your desired keyword. [2] After pressing enter, the search engine will give you a lot of choices for the perfect color palette. [3] Let’s say you’ve found your chosen palette. Open the Snipping Tool, drag the cursor over the color palette, then the program will direct you to an interface similar sa interface ng MS Paint. I-save niyo na siya, then pwede niyo na siyang itago at magagamit niyo pa siya sa mga susunod ninyong graphic. In using your desired palette on your graphic, I have a friend named the Eyedropper Tool. Let us do a sample typography-based graphic using a color palette I’ve found online. After gawin yung process sa taas, open your......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Weighted Average

...Chapter 910 The Cost of Capital ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 910-1 a. The weighted average cost of capital, WACC, is the weighted average of the after-tax component costs of capital—-debt, preferred stock, and common equity. Each weighting factor is the proportion of that type of capital in the optimal, or target, capital structure. The after-tax cost of debt, rd(1 - T), is the relevant cost to the firm of new debt financing. Since interest is deductible from taxable income, the after-tax cost of debt to the firm is less than the before-tax cost. Thus, rd(1 - T) is the appropriate component cost of debt (in the weighted average cost of capital). b. The cost of preferred stock, rps, is the cost to the firm of issuing new preferred stock. For perpetual preferred, it is the preferred dividend, Dps, divided by the net issuing price, Pn. Note that no tax adjustments are made when calculating the component cost of preferred stock because, unlike interest payments on debt, dividend payments on preferred stock are not tax deductible. The cost of new common equity, re, is the cost to the firm of equity obtained by selling new common stock. It is, essentially, the cost of retained earnings adjusted for flotation costs. Flotation costs are the costs that the firm incurs when it issues new securities. The amount actually available to the firm for capital investment from the sale of new securities is the sales price of the securities less......

Words: 4981 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Image Processing

...1 Introduction to Image Processing and Compression Using Matlab/Octave Table of content Image Processing and Compression Using Matlab ........................................................................... 1 1.0 Basic image operation.............................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Image display ....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2: Color Image Display........................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Image Array Indexing .......................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Converting image array to image file .................................................................................. 8 1.5 Image Manipulation ............................................................................................................. 8 1.5.1 Resize image ..................................................................................................................... 9 1.6 Image Analysis Using Histogram ...................................................................................... 10 1.6.1 Generating feature vector for image using greyscale histogram .................................... 14 1.6.2 Comparing Image Descriptor ...............................................................

Words: 3272 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Survey over Image Thresholding Techniques

...over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation Mehmet Sezgin ¨ ˙ Tubıtak Marmara Research Center Information Technologies Research Institute Gebze, Kocaeli Turkey E-mail: ¨ Bulent Sankur ˇ ¸ Bogazici University Electric-Electronic Engineering Department Bebek, ˙stanbul I Turkey Abstract. We conduct an exhaustive survey of image thresholding methods, categorize them, express their formulas under a uniform notation, and finally carry their performance comparison. The thresholding methods are categorized according to the information they are exploiting, such as histogram shape, measurement space clustering, entropy, object attributes, spatial correlation, and local gray-level surface. 40 selected thresholding methods from various categories are compared in the context of nondestructive testing applications as well as for document images. The comparison is based on the combined performance measures. We identify the thresholding algorithms that perform uniformly better over nondestructive testing and document image applications. © 2004 SPIE and IS&T. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1631316] 1 Introduction In many applications of image processing, the gray levels of pixels belonging to the object are substantially different from the gray levels of the pixels belonging to the background. Thresholding then becomes a simple but effective tool to separate objects from the background. Examples of thresholding applications are document image......

Words: 16889 - Pages: 68

Free Essay

Image Dithering

...Image Dithering Image and its parameters An image is a two-dimensional representation of a rectilinear array of pixels. A pixel is sample point in the image that has coordinates location it. These samples are obtained from the continuous function CCD cells in a camera, photoreceptors in the eye and rays in a virtual camera. There are three types of image resolution. The first resolution is where each pixel has only the depth bits for color or intensities. The second type of resolution is the spatial resolution which involves the width and the heights of the image only. Lastly, another image resolution is the temporal resolution, and this kind does the monitoring of the image brightness at a particular frequency only. Image dithering Dithering is the approximation of color from a mixture of several colors by the computer program when the desired color is not available. An example if dithering is the when a certain color in the Web page for a particular browser is not supported by the other. In that case, the browser will attempt to replace the desired color by approximating two colors that it can generate. The same may or may not be accepted by the designer of graphics and may appear grainy because it is composed of varied pixel intensities instead of one intensity. Dithering has applications in color image output and for artistic purposes as well. Secondly, dithering is used in web design for reducing images from high color counts to low color counts. It is also used......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4