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Wind Power

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Appendix 5.1
Wind power plants with a power output range of 1.5 kW to 25 kW
Technical regulation for grid connection TF 3.2.5

Appendix 5.1

Table of contents
1. Terminology and definitions 4
2. Commissioning requirements 5
3. Verification of tolerance of frequency and voltage deviations 6
4. Verification of electricity quality requirements 9
5. Verification of control and monitoring requirements 10
6. Verification of protection requirements 14
7. Verification of data communication requirements 15

To the reader
This commissioning report template contains guidelines for implementing a commissioning test to verify that a wind power plant complies with the technical, functional and documentation requirements which wind power plants with a rated output over 1.5 MW and up to 25 MW must comply with when they are connected to the Danish power grid.

The report template is published by Energinet.dk and can be downloaded from www.energinet.dk.

1. Terminology and definitions

The terminology and definitions used must be specified in this chapter.

2. Commissioning requirements

2.1 Introduction
In the following a brief introduction must be given to the commissioning test. The scope of testing (technical tasks and time required) must also be described.

Technically, the following must be verified:
- Tolerance of frequency and voltage deviations
- Electricity quality
- Control and monitoring
- Protection
- Data communication and exchange of signals
- Signal list

The precise ambient conditions and relevant conditions for each individual test must be described, eg temperature, wind speed, wind direction, grid voltage, grid frequency, etc.

The duration of the various tests must be indicated.

All references to tables and figures are to TF 3.2.5 (Technical Regulation).
The sections in the report template and TF 3.2.5 have the same numbering.

2.2 Test set-up
In this section, all verification set-ups, including a drawing illustrating how all important system components as well as associated programs and auxiliary tools are interlinked, must be described.

The version of all components, programs and auxiliary tools of any kind used in the verification must also be stated in this section.

2.3 Test scope
The scope of each individual commissioning test must be stated, eg which tests or subtests that have been chosen to verify a requirement.

If subtests are mutually interdependent, an account must be given of how possible impacts from previous tests have been minimised or reflected in the test results.

2.4 Test preconditions
All test preconditions (external and internal) must be stated for each individual test. Examples of internal test preconditions include wind turbine configurations, grid configuration, primary and secondary grid set-ups, maintenance condition, etc.

All external preconditions relevant to the specific test must be stated, eg wind speed, wind direction, turbulence level, grid voltage, grid frequency, etc.

2.5 Reference documents
In this section, all documents forming the basis of the test or being used during testing must be listed.
3. Verification of tolerance of frequency and voltage deviations

3.2 Normal operating conditions

R3.1 It must be possible to continuously start and operate a wind power plant engaged in normal production within the design requirements and restricted by the settings for over- and undervoltage protection as described in chapter 6.
Verify that the wind power plant is capable of engaging in continuous production within the limits stated.
R3.2 Automatic start of production is only allowed when the voltage lies within the normal production area. Verify that the wind power plant starts automatically within the limits stated.
Verify that the wind power plant does not start automatically when the limits stated are exceeded.
R3.3 The overall requirements for active power production which a wind power plant must comply with in case of frequency and voltage deviations can be seen in Figure 4. Verify that the wind power plant com-plies with the requirements stated for production.
R3.4 The wind power plant must be designed to withstand sudden phase jumps of up to 20° in the point of connection. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
Verify that the wind power plant cuts off the grid connection when the limits stated are exceeded.
R3.5 The wind power plant must supply normal production not later than 5 seconds after having returned to the normal production area. Verify by means of a simulation model that the wind power plant complies with the stated requirements for production.

3.3 Abnormal operating conditions

3.3.1 Tolerance of voltage drops

R3.6 In the point of connection a wind power plant must be able to withstand voltage drops down to 20% of the voltage in the point of connection over a period of minimum 0.5 seconds (line-to-line voltage for the 50 Hz component) without disconnecting. The requirements can be seen in Figure 5. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
R3.7 The following requirements must be complied with in the event of symmetrical and asymmetrical faults, ie the requirements apply in case of faults in one, two or three phases (Figure 5, area A): The wind power plant must stay connected to the grid and uphold normal production. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
R3.8 The following requirements must be complied with in the event of symmetrical and asymmetrical faults, ie the requirements apply in case of faults in one, two or three phases (Figure 5, area B): The wind power plant must stay connected to the grid. The wind power plant must provide maximum voltage support by supplying a controlled amount of reactive power so that the wind power plant helps to stabilise the voltage within the design limits offered by the current technology, see Figure 6. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
R3.9 The following requirements must be complied with in the event of symmetrical and asymmetrical faults, ie the requirements apply in case of faults in one, two or three phases (Figure 5, area C): Disconnecting the wind power plant is allowed. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
R3.10 In connection with fault sequences in area B, the wind power plant must have a control function capable of supplying a controlled amount of reactive power, as specified.

Control must be as outlined in Figure 6 so that the reactive power follows the control characteristic with a tolerance of ±20% after 100 ms. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant supplies the power specified within the limits stated.
R3.11 In Figure 5, area B, the supply of reactive power has first priority, while the supply of active power has second priority. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant prioritises the supply of reactive power over the supply of active power.
R3.12 If possible, active power must be maintained during voltage drops, but a reduction in active power within the design limits is acceptable, however. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant maintains the active power within the design limits stated.

3.3.2 Recurring faults in the public electricity supply network

R3.13 The wind power plant and any compensation equipment must stay connected after faults have occurred in the public electricity supply network, as specified in Table 2. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
Verify that the wind power plant cuts off the grid connection when the limits stated are exceeded.
R3.14 The wind power plant's capacity must be sufficient to comply with the requirements specified in Table 2 when at least two independent faults of the types specified occur within two minutes. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
Verify that the wind power plant cuts off the grid connection when the limits stated are exceeded.
R3.15 The energy reserves provided by auxiliary equipment such as emergency supply equipment, the hydraulic system and the pneumatic system should be sufficient for the wind power plant to operate with at least six independent faults of the types specified in Table 2 at 5-minute intervals. Verify by using a simulation model that the wind power plant stays connected to the grid within the limits stated.
Verify that the wind power plant cuts off the grid connection outside the limits stated.

4. Verification of electricity quality requirements

R4.1 Type tests must be performed for each type of wind turbine generator system making up the wind power plant in accordance with IEC 61400-21. As a supplement to the type test, an emission model for the wind turbine generator systems may be provided for the purpose of determining high-frequency currents. Performance of type test for each wind turbine generator system and emission model, if any.
R4.2 For wind power plants with a power output greater than 1.5 MW consisting of more than one wind turbine generator system, a model for the power infrastructure must also be provided for the purpose of determining high-frequency voltages. Provision of emission model for wind power plant.
R4.3 The wind power plant must not give rise to rapid voltage changes d (%) exceeding the limit values specified in Table 3. Verify that rapid voltage changes caused by the wind power plant do not exceed the limits stated.
R4.4 The maximum flicker contribution Plt and Pst from wind power plants connected at the same voltage level and to the same substation must not exceed the limit values in Table 5. Verify that the flicker emission from the wind power plant does not exceed the limits stated.
R4.5 The wind power plant is not allowed to emit harmonics exceeding the limit values specified in Tables 10, 11 and 12. Verify that harmonics emitted from the wind power plant do not exceed the limits stated.
R4.6 The wind power plant is not allowed to emit interharmonics exceeding the limit values specified in Table 16. Verify that interharmonics emitted from the wind power plant do not exceed the limits stated.
R4.7 The emission of currents with frequencies higher than 2 kHz must not exceed 1% of the rated current in any of the frequency groups. Verify that the wind power plant complies with the limit values for the emission of frequencies higher than 2 kHz in the same way as it does where interharmonic emissions are concerned.

5. Verification of control and monitoring requirements

5.1 General requirements

R5.1 After a wind power plant has been disconnected due to a fault in the public electricity supply network, the wind power plant must at the earliest reconnect automatically 3 minutes after the voltage and the frequency once again lie within the normal production area Verify that the wind power plant does not reconnect earlier than specified.

R5.2 A wind power plant which was disconnected by an external signal prior to a fault occurring in the public electricity supply network must not reconnect until the external signal has been eliminated, and the voltage and the frequency once again lie within the normal production area. Verify that the wind power plant does not reconnect earlier than specified.

R5.3 All changes to setpoints and commands must be registered together with an identification of the operator. Verify that all recordings are performed as specified.
R5.4 All changes to setpoints or commands to change the production must be time-stamped. Verify that all registrations are performed as specified.

5.2 Active power control functions

R5.5 It must be possible to continuously downward regulate the active power supplied by the wind power plant to an arbitrary value in the interval from 100% to at least 40% of the rated power. When downward regulation is performed, the shutting-down of individual wind turbine generator systems is allowed so that the load characteristic is followed as well as possible. Verify that the wind power plant complies with the requirements stated for the function.
R5.6 The wind power plant must stay connected to the public electricity supply network at mean wind speeds below a predefined cut-out wind speed. As regards wind speeds around the cut-out wind speed, the wind power plant must be able to downward regulate the active power as specified. When downward regulation is performed, the shutting-down of individual wind turbine generator systems is allowed so that the load characteristic shown in Figure 13 is followed as well as possible. Verify that the wind power plant complies with the requirements stated for the function.
R5.7 An absolute production constraint is used to constrain the active power from a wind power plant to a predefined power limit in the point of connection. Verify that the wind power plant complies with the requirements stated for the function.
R5.8 A power gradient constraint is used to limit the maximum speed by which the reactive power can change in case of changes in wind speed or to the setpoints for a wind power plant. Verify that the wind power plant complies with the requirements stated for the function.…...

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