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In: English and Literature

Submitted By raikhanserikova
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Proverbs in various languages are found with a wide variety of grammatical structures.[21] In English, for example, we find the following structures (in addition to others): • Imperative, negative - Don't beat a dead horse. • Imperative, positive - Look before you leap. • Parallel phrases - Garbage in, garbage out. • Rhetorical question - Is the Pope Catholic? • Declarative sentence - Birds of a feather flock together.
However, people will often quote only a fraction of a proverb to invoke an entire proverb, e.g. "All is fair" instead of "All is fair in love and war", and "A rolling stone" for "A rolling stone gathers no moss."
The grammar of proverbs is not always the typical grammar of the spoken language, often elements are moved around, to achieve rhyme or focus

Use in conversation[edit]

Proverbs are used in conversation by adults more than children, partially because adults have learned more proverbs than children. Also, using proverbs well is a skill that is developed over years. Additionally, children have not mastered the patterns of metaphorical expression that are invoked in proverb use. Proverbs, because they are indirect, allow a speaker to disagree or give advice in a way that may be less offensive. Studying actual proverb use in conversation, however, is difficult since the researcher must wait for proverbs to happen.[23] An Ethiopian researcher, Tadesse Jaleta Jirata, made headway in such research by attending and taking notes at events where he knew proverbs were expected to be part of the conversations.[24]

Use in literature[edit]

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Created proverb from J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings on a bumper sticker.
Many authors have used proverbs in their writings. Probably the most famous user of proverbs in novels is J. R. R. Tolkien in his The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings series.[25][26] Also, C. S. Lewis created a dozen proverbs in The Horse and His Boy.[27] These books are notable for not only using proverbs as integral to the development of the characters and the story line, but also for creating proverbs.
Among medieval literary texts, Geoffrey Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde plays a special role because Chaucer's usage seems to challenge the truth value of proverbs by exposing their epistemological unreliability.[28]
Proverbs have been the inspiration for titles of books: The Bigger they Come by Erle Stanley Gardner and Birds of a Feather (several books with this title). Some stories have been written with a proverb overtly as an opening, such as "A stitch in time saves nine" at the beginning of "Kitty's Class Day", one of Louisa May Alcott's Proverb Stories. Other times, a proverb appears at the end of a story, summing up a moral to the story, frequently found in Aesop's Fables, such as "Heaven helps those who help themselves" from Hercules and the Wagoner.
Proverbs have also been used strategically by poets.[29] Sometimes proverbs (or portions of them or anti-proverbs) are used for titles, such as "A bird in the bush" by Lord Kennet and his stepson Peter Scott and "The blind leading the blind" by Lisa Mueller. Sometimes, multiple proverbs are important parts of poems, such as Paul Muldoon's "Symposium", which begins "You can lead a horse to water but you can't make it hold its nose to the grindstone and hunt with the hounds. Every dog has a stitch in time..."
Some authors have bent and twisted proverbs, creating anti-proverbs, for a vartiety of literary effects. For example, in the Harry Potter novels, J. K. Rowling reshapes a standard English proverb into “It’s no good crying over spilt potion” and Dumbledore advises Harry not to “count your owls before they are delivered”.[30] In a slightly different use of reshaping proverbs, in the Aubrey–Maturin series of historical naval novels by Patrick O'Brian, Capt. Jack Aubrey humorously mangles and mis-splices proverbs, such as “Never count the bear’s skin before it is hatched” and “There’s a good deal to be said for making hay while the iron is hot.”[31]
Because proverbs are so much a part of the language and culture, authors have sometimes used proverbs in historical fiction effectively, but anachronistically, before the proverb was actually known. For example, the novel Ramage and the Rebels, by Dudley Pope is set in approximately 1800. Captain Ramage reminds his adversary "You are supposed to know that it is dangerous to change horses in midstream" (p. 259), with another allusion to the same proverb three pages later. However, the proverb about changing horses in midstream is reliably dated to 1864,[32] so the proverb could not have been known or used by a character from that period.
Some authors have used so many proverbs that there have been entire books written cataloging their proverb usage, such as Charles Dickens,[33] Agatha Christie,[34] and George Bernard Shaw.[35]
On the non-fiction side, proverbs have also been used by authors. Some have been used as the basis for book titles, e.g. I Shop, Therefore I Am: Compulsive Buying and the Search for Self by April Lane Benson. Some proverbs been used as the basis for article titles, "All our eggs in a broken basket: How the Human Terrain System is undermining sustainable military cultural competence."[36] Many authors have cited proverbs as epigrams at the beginning of their articles, e.g. "'If you want to dismantle a hedge, remove one thorn at a time' Somali proverb" in an article on peacemaking in Somalia.[37]

Interpretations of proverbs[edit]

Interpreting proverbs is often complex. Interpreting proverbs from other cultures is much more difficult than interpreting proverbs in ones own culture. Even within English-speaking cultures, there is difference of opinion on how to interpret the proverb A rolling stone gathers no moss. Some see it as condemning a person that keeps moving, seeing moss as a positive things, such as profit; others see it the proverb as praising people that keep moving and developing, seeing moss as a negative thing, such as negative habits.
In an extreme example, one researcher working in Ghana found that for a single Akan proverb, twelve different interpretations were given.[38] Though this is extreme, proverbs can often have multiple interpretations.
Children will sometimes interpret proverbs in a literal sense, not yet knowing how to understand the conventionalized metaphor. Interpretation of proverbs is also affected by injuries and diseases of the brain, "A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation."[39]

Counter proverbs[edit]

There are often proverbs that contradict each other, such as "Look before you leap" and "He who hesitates is lost." These have been labeled "counter proverbs" [40] When there are such counter proverbs, each can be used in its own appropriate situation, and neither is intended to be a universal truth.
The concept of "counter proverb" is more about pairs of contradictory proverbs than about the use of proverbs to counter each other in an argument. For example, the following pair are counter proverbs from Ghana "It is the patient person who will milk a barren cow" and "The person who would milk a barren cow must prepare for a kick on the forehead" [41] The two contradict each other, whether they are used in an argument or not (though indeed they were used in an argument). But the same work contains an appendix with many examples of proverbs used in arguing for contrary positions, but proverbs that are not inherently contradictory, (pp. 157–171), such as "One is better off with hope of a cow's return than news of its death" countered by "If you don't know a goat [before its death] you mock at its skin". Though this pair was used in a contradictory way in a conversation, they are not a set of "counter proverbs".
"Counter proverbs" are not the same as a "paradoxical proverb", a proverb that contains a seeming paradox.[42]

Proverbs in drama and film[edit]

Similarly to other forms of literature, proverbs have also been used as important units of language in drama and films. This is true from the days of classical Greek works[43] to old French [44] to Shakespeare[45] to today. The use of proverbs in drama and film today is found in languages around the world, such as Yorùbá.[46]
A film that makes rich use of proverbs is Forrest Gump, known for both using and creating proverbs.[47][48] Other studies of the use of proverbs in film include work by Kevin McKenna on the Russian film Aleksandr Nevsky,[49] Haase's study of an adaptation of Little Red Riding Hood,[50] and Elias Dominguez Barajas on the film Viva Zapata!.[51]
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Play poster from 1899.
In the case of Forrest Gump, the screenplay by Eric Roth had more proverbs than the novel by Winston Groom, but for The Harder They Come, the reverse is true, where the novel derived from the movie by Michael Thelwell has many more proverbs than the movie.[52]
Éric Rohmer, the French film director, directed a series of films, the "Comedies and Proverbs", where each film was based on a proverb: The Aviator's Wife, The Perfect Marriage, Pauline at the Beach, Full Moon in Paris (the film's proverb was invented by Rohmer himself: "The one who has two wives loses his soul, the one who has two houses loses his mind."), The Green Ray, Boyfriends and Girlfriends.[53]
Movie titles based on proverbs include Murder Will Out (1939 film), Try, Try Again, and The Harder They Fall. The title of an award-winning Turkish film, Three Monkeys, also invokes a proverb, though the title does not fully quote it.
They have also been used as the titles of plays: Baby with the Bathwater by Christopher Durang, Dog Eat Dog by Mary Gallagher, and The Dog in the Manger by Charles Hale Hoyt. Proverbs have also been used in musical dramas, such as The Full Monty, which has been shown to use proverbs in clever ways.[54]

Proverbs and music[edit]

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"Spilt Milk" album by Jellyfish.
Proverbs are often poetic in and of themselves, making them ideally suited for adapting into songs. Proverbs have been used in music from opera to country to hip-hop. Proverbs have also been used in music in other languages, such as the Akan language[55] and the Igede language.[56]
English examples of using proverbs in music include Elvis Presley's Easy come, easy go, Harold Robe's Never swap horses when you're crossing a stream, Arthur Gillespie's Absence makes the heart grow fonder, Bob Dylan's Like a rolling stone, Cher's Apples don't fall far from the tree. Lynn Anderson made famous a song full of proverbs, I never promised you a rose garden (written by Joe South). In choral music, we find Michael Torke's Proverbs for female voice and ensemble. A number of Blues musicians have also used proverbs extensively.,[57][58] The frequent use of proverbs in Country music has led to published studies of proverbs in this genre.,[59][60] The Reggae artist Jahdan Blakkamoore has recorded a piece titled Proverbs Remix. The opera Maldobrìe contains careful use of proverbs.[61] An extreme example of many proverbs used in composing songs include Bruce Springsteen performed a song almost entirely composed of proverbs.[62] The Mighty Diamonds recorded a song called simply "Proverbs".
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"Fleet Foxes" album cover with Netherlandish Proverbs.
The band Fleet Foxes used the proverb painting Netherlandish Proverbs for the cover of their eponymous album Fleet Foxes.
In addition to proverbs being used in songs themselves, some rock bands have used parts of proverbs as their names, such as the Rolling Stones, Bad Company, Mothers of Invention, Feast or Famine, Of Mice and Men. There have been at least two groups that called themselves "The Proverbs". In addition, many albums have been named with allusions to proverbs, such as Spilt milk (a title used by Jellyfish and also Kristina Train), The more things change by Machine Head, Silk purse by Linda Rondstadt, Another day, another dollar by DJ Scream Roccett, The blind leading the naked by Vicious Femmes, What's good for the goose is good for the gander by Bobby Rush, Resistance is Futile by Steve Coleman, Murder will out by Fan the Fury. The proverb Feast or famine has been used as an album title by Chuck Ragan, Reef the Lost Cauze, Indiginus, and DaVinci. The band Splinter Group released an album titled When in Rome, Eat Lions. The band Downcount used a proverb for the name of their tour, Come and take it.

Sources of proverbs[edit]

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"Who will bell the cat?", comes from the end of a story.
Proverbs come from a variety of sources. Some are, indeed, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by Confucius, Plato, Baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry,[63] songs, commercials, advertisements, movies, literature, etc.[64] A number of the well known sayings of Jesus, Shakespeare, and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, and many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are also based on stories, often the end of a story. For example, the proverb "Who will bell the cat?" is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat.
Though many proverbs are ancient, they were all newly created at some point by somebody. Sometimes it is easy to detect that a proverb is newly coined by a reference to something recent, such as the Haitian proverb "The fish that is being microwaved doesn't fear the lightning".[65] Also, there is a proverb in the Kafa language of Ethiopia that refers to the forced military conscription of the 1980s, "...the one who hid himself lived to have children."[66] A Mongolian proverb also shows evidence of recent origin, "A beggar who sits on gold; Foam rubber piled on edge."[67] Over 1,400 new English proverbs are said to have been coined in the 20th century.[68] This process of creating proverbs is always ongoing, so that possible new proverbs are being created constantly. Those sayings that are adopted and used by an adequate number of people become proverbs in that society.

Proverbs in advertising[edit]

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Anti-proverb used in advertising Chick-Fil-A
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Anti-proverb used in advertising
Proverbs are frequently used in advertising, often in slightly modified form.[154] Ford once advertised its Thunderbird with, "One drive is worth a thousand words" (Mieder 2004b: 84). This is doubly interesting since the underlying proverb behind this, "One picture is worth a thousand words," was originally introduced into the English proverb repertoire in an ad for televisions (Mieder 2004b: 83).
A few of the many proverbs adapted and used in advertising include: • "Live by the sauce, dine by the sauce" (Buffalo Wild Wings) • "At D & D Dogs, you can teach an old dog new tricks" (D & D Dogs) • "If at first you don't succeed, you're using the wrong equipment" (John Deere) • "A pfennig saved is a pfennig earned." (Volkswagen) • "Not only absence makes the heart grow fonder." (Godiva Chocolatier) • "Where Hogs fly" (Grand Prairie AirHogs) baseball team • "Waste not. Read a lot." (Half Price Books) attribution http://www.citehr.com/44925-motivational-proverbs.html#ixzz2ws6kiXsQ

Motivational Proverbs.. CiteHR

К английским пословицам побудительной семантики нами относится группа односоставных/двусоставных предложений-пословиц, выражающих значение прямого, прямого с обратным смыслом, косвенного или скрытого побуждения, разнящихся иллокутивной силой, степенью категоричности и оттенками значений.
Семантика побуждения в английских пословицах реализуется: предложением с императивом (43,61%); конструкцией «Let + Infinitive» (1,87%); конструкцией «наречие с модально-оценочным значением «betten) + глагол в повелительном наклонении» (3,74%); конструкцией с модальными словами в активном и пассивном залоге (16,76%); моделью «предваряющее It + Inf. (G.)» (2,80%); моделью «N + перформативный глагол» (0,62%); инфинитивной конструкцией (0,62%); безглагольной побудительной конструкцией (2,18%), безымперативным повествовательным предложением (27,80%).
В рам ках • поело в и ч н ого фонда данные конструкции проявляют заложенное в них традиционной грамматикой формальное своеобразие и обнаруживают дополнительные функционально-семантические особенности.
В качестве формальных особенностей английской пословицы, по сравнению с русской, можно назвать фиксированный порядок слов, запрет двойного отрицания, стремление к двусоставности, которое объясняется недостаточностью парадигм английского глагола, который своей формой не всегда может достаточно ясно указывать на субъект, требуя его наличия, вследствие чего даже безличные английские пословицы строятся при помощи формально безличного подлежащего, которое, растворяя свое содержание в содержании сказуемого, не обозначает никакого реального субъекта, не выделяется и не рассматривается самостоятельно, но все-таки присутствует в предложении.
Выявленные конструкции, являясь полифункциональными, способны реализовывать на письме и в речи несколько значений: общее назидание, оценку, побуждение, которое может быть дифференцировано на несколько типов: прямое (40.99%): Don't judge, a book by its cover. - He, суди о книге no ее обложке. (Кусковская, 7); Learn wisdom by the follies of others. — Говорят на обум, а ты бери на ум! (Кусковская, 28), прямое с обратным смыслом (S.28%): Give a dog a bad name and hang him. - Злые языки острый меч. (Кусковская, 29), Talk to the devil and he is sure to appear. — Про волка речь, а он навстречь. (Буковская, 67); косвенное, иногда имеющее значение запрета на совершение заведомо невыполнимых, безрезультатных действий, которые нет смысла выполнять (37,58%): Love can V be forced. — Насильно мил не будешь. (Кусковская, 33); God helps those who help themselves. — На Бога надейся, а сам не плошай. (Буковская, 95); или скрытое (16,15%): A watched pot never boils. - За которым горшком наблюдают, тот долго вскипает. (Кусковская, 52); Nothing risk, nothing win. - He рискуешь, не добудешь. (Кусковская, 72).
Например, пословица: One cannot run with the hare and hunt with the hounds. - Двум господам не служат. (Буковская, 102) при различных реализациях может являться побуждением: «You cannot run with the hare and hunt with the hounds, - he said. You must act for here. The dad should have wished that. (Galsworthy «In Chancery»); может выступать общим назиданием: « You ought to know best», he sad, «but if you want a divorce it's not very wise to go seeing her, is it? One cannot run with (he hare and hunt with the hounds» (Galsworthy, «Saint's progress»); может являться оценкой действий 3-го лица: «Old traditions are the melting pot..,. He shouldn 7 have run with the hare and hunt with the hounds » (Dickens «А tale of two cities»).
Пословица: Don't look a gift horse in a mouth -Дареному коню в pom не заглядывают. (Кусковская, 49) может использоваться с различны- ми иллокутивными целями: в качестве оценки действий третьего лица в прошлом: «Не is absolutely exacting person... and always looking a gift horse in the mouth». ^Galsworthy «In Chancery»); как общее назидание без указания на конкретного адресата и временной направленности: «There shall be little Iigering as possible in your case..,, you may depend upon it», he said, «Much obliged. 1 don 7 want to look a giß horse in the mouth, -which is no a gracious thing to do». (Galsworthy «Saint's progress»); как побуждение, ориентированное на конкретного адресата и временной план будущего: «My dearl I am not going to say anything wrong. I won't give you more annoyance than I can help.... Don't look a gift horse in a mouth» (Dickens «David Copperfield»).
Приведенная ниже таблица отражает типы синтаксических конструкций, реализующих в пословичном фонде английского языка семантику побуждения.
Таблица 2
Типы побудительного значения в английских пословицах
Конструкции Типы побудительного значения Примеры
Прямое а 3 ! w 3 1 Е и — и Косвенное Косвенное со знач. заппета Скрытое
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
9 •9 •■С jo 1 J Императив + + - - - К?ер your mouth ?hu( and vow eves open. ~ ¡Аещше рч. а больше (Кусковская. 1381: Lend your money and lose Your friend. - Дружба дружбой, а табачок врозь. (Кусковская. clOSi = Ср.: Не давай в займы -не теряй дружбы.
«Let + Inf'Ye» + + - * * l£i the cobbler stick to his last. - Всяк сверчок waff свой шесток. (Кусковская, 39); Lei sleeping dog fit, - He дразни собаку — не wcvcum. /Буковская, с. 761 = Ср.: Не де~ лай. Не coeeDtuafi,
*Better + imp-ve» - - + - + Better risk a little than lo$e the whole. - Лучше рискнуть, чем все потерять. (Кусковская. 721 = Ср.: Рискуй: Ве(-(?f м*?рг out shoes than sheets. - Ha naiarttxx лежать, так и ломтя не видать. (Кусковская, 43) = Ср.: Не лежи.
• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
*л + Inf-ve (О)» - - + + + It is easv го be wise after the event. - Много храбрых после рати, как залезем на полати. (Кусковская, 18) = Ср.: Будь храбрым, когда того требует случай: It is по use cnini? over spilt milk. - Слезами горю не поможешь. (Ктековская. с. 128) = Ср.: Не расстраивайся из-за случившегося\j£ is never too ¡ate to learn. — Грамоте учиться всегда пригодится. (Кусковская, 8) - Ср.: Учись грамоте в любом возрасте. к Modal Verb + Inf-ve» - - + + - You must creep before you leap. - Научись ходить, а потом уж pppiipfi, (Кусковская, с. 86): You cannot make a silk purse out of a sow 'i ear. — Кривого веретена не выпрямишь. (Кусковская. с. 20) ~ Ср.: fie исправляй. Things past cannot be recalled. — Прошлого не воротишь. (Кусковская. 128). - Н* старайся вернуть то. что уже ушло.
С nep- форм, глаг. - - + - Brave actions never wanted a trumpet. - Доброе дело само себяхвалит. (Кусковская. 142J ш Хорошее не хвали.
Безгл. поб. предя. - * + - + Out of si%ht. out of mind - С глаз долой - из сердиа вон.
(Кусковская, с.160) = Ср.: Н? $стр$чцЦся с человеком -быстрее забудешь; jV…...

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...Ang batas militar ay isang sistema ng mga patakaran na nagkakaroon ng bisa kapag ang mga militar ang nag-kontrol sa karaniwang pamamahala ng katarungan. Ika-21 ng Setyembre 1972 – idineklara ni Marcos ang Proclamation No. 1081 o ang Batas Militar (Martial Law sa Ingles). Ngunit isinapubliko ito at napanood ang pagdedeklara dalawang araw matapos ito pagtibayin. Matapos ipinalabas ang proklamasyon, agad na ipinaaresto ang mga katunggali ni Ferdie sa pulitika, at mga demonstrador. Ipinasara ang mga istasyon ng telebisyon, radyo at palimbagan ng mga dyaryo. Hinigpit ang seguridad at nagpatupad ng curfew sa buong kapuluan. Idineklara ang Martial Law dahil sa assassination plot laban kay dating Defense Secretary/Minister at ngayo’y Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile, paglakas ng pwersa ng mga komunistang grupo at patuloy na kaguluhan sanhi ng mga demonstrasyon laban sa pamahalaan at ang pagpapasabog sa Plaza Miranda. Hangad ng Martial Law na   “Iligtas ang Republika” Layong iligtas ang republika mula sa mga masasamang elemento katulad ng mga komunista sa pamamagitan ng pagdedeklara ng Batas Militar. Imbes na humina at mawala ang mga komunista, lalong lumakas at dumami ang kanilang mga miyembro, nag-alab sila laban sa rehimeng Marcos. Mas tumindi ang giyera sa pagitan ng gobyerno at mga komunista kaya maraming inosente ang namatay sa salpukan ng dalawa. Ang mga mamamahayag ay napagbintangan na sila’y kasapi ng mga grupong Communist Party of the Philippines at New People’s......

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...| Hedonic consumers | Utilitarian Consumers | Product/service innovation—your purple cow | Gum that has the ability to react something in your brain to recall a favorite memory. | Gum that has ADHD medicine in it. | Target Market and persona | Adults aged 35+ | High school and college students. | Goal | Our goal is to have this new brand out and selling to adults with a 10% increase in sales within a year of being put on the shelves. | Our goal is to sell 20% more gum in the first 6 months of releasing, while seeing students test scores go up as well. | Theory-based strategy 1 (name theory, define and use) | Hedonic Motivation: drive to experience something emotionally gratifying. This new gum will help adults retrieve some of their favorite memories so this will bring in customers that are looking to remember some things very vividly. Because many people will love this emotional aspect of the gum it will drive up sales. | Utilitarian Motivation: drive to acquire products that can be used to accomplish something. This gum will release some ADHD medicine so that students will be able to concentrate better while studying. Gum already increases concentration while studying so not too much of the medicine will be needed but there will be enough for students to see a difference. | Theory-based strategy 1 (name theory, define and use) | Social Networking: We would get some iElites to tweet or talk on......

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...Should I get a job during the summer? | Cost Benefits | |  Less sleeping time(short term) Having my own money to spend(short term) | |  No time to hang out with friends(short term) experience of having a job(long term)Less time to work on online course(short term) learning the value of money( long term) 1. Explain how the concepts of scarcity, choice, and opportunity cost relate to your dilemma.The opportunity cost would be having less time to spend hanging out with friends and family but I will be making my own money and having the experience of working. For scarcity it would be instead of me just hanging out with my friends all the time I will have a job and learn how to manage money and learn the value of having money. 2. When making a decision, are the costs and benefits equally important to you? Why or why not? Based on your chart, explain which category, costs or benefits, and would have the largest impact on your decision? When I make a decision the costs and the benefits are important to me because I like to see which one outweighs the other and whichever one seems more practical I will go with it. The benefits will have the largest impact on my decision because the benefits outweigh the costs.3. Based on the chart and your responses to the above questions, what will be your......

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...Reflective Essay One: My Leadership Manifesto What type of leader am I? I’m not a very good leader right now. I usually try to avoid the spotlight when possible. There are times when I am the lead tech on shift though. I try to lead by example. I don’t like to just sit around when there are jets to be fixed. I like to take initiative to figure out a plan for us to complete our work on time. What type of leadership style do I use? The transactional leadership style is probably the one that I use the most. I don’t like micromanaging at all though. I hate when leadership comes and checks on you every 5 minutes. Just let me get my work done without distractions. I would love to be a transformational leader but I just don’t have the dedication and work ethic to become one at this moment in my life. I just like to focus on the task at hand. I come into work and find out what needs to get done. Then I prioritize it all and get everything accomplished as efficiently and timeliness as I can. What type of NCO am I (want to be)? I want to be in expert in my AFSC and be someone my fellow airman can look up to. Someone that they can come to with any problem without fear of reprisal. I want my subordinates to follow what I say because they want to and not because they have to. I also want to be able to stick up for my fellow airman when they need it. I don’t like NCO’s that just care about their own careers and throw others under the bus. What are my strengths? It’s......

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...Narration * Recounting of events; real or imagined * General Classification * Objective narration – narration of fact * Events control the narrative composition * Subjective narration – purely imaginative narration (fiction) * The writer controls the narration of event * Three Elements of Narration * Setting * A narrative must happen somewhere * “background” must be plainly indicated * Either by incidental references here and there * Or by formal description * Characters * There must be actors * Must have definite personalities * Can be described formally when they appear * Or described themselves by their words and actions to the reader * Plot * Series of related events * (Imaginative) the writer invent the plot * (Fact) the writer finds it in a sense ready in hand * Motion and Time in Narration * Motion * Narration give us a moving picture * Its emphasis is not on the thing in motion but on the nature of motion itself * Narration does not tell about a story, It tells the story * Time * The movement of series of incidents follows the order of time * Chronological order of arrangement * The series of events must have significant relation with one another * Point of View * A person who bears some relation to the action * Either as observer or participant, and whose intelligence serves as the index of the action for the reader * Three...

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...Manager’s Hot Seat Case 13: Listening Skills: Yeah, Whatever The Meeting M: Pilar, hey. I just came down the street and I was stopped by 3 different people. We’re a hit. I mean we are a huge hit. I can’t believe how beautiful this is. P: That means it’s all over the place right? M: Absolutely. P: Congratulations. M: I mean it looks right. It looks exactly; I couldn’t even have imagined it. P: Yeah, I saw it, it was great. M: So what did you want to see me about? P: Ok, well. First of all, I wanted to congratulate you. M: Oh, thanks, thanks so much. I called my mom and dad I was so excited. P: I’m really happy with your work. And I also want to talk to you a little a bit about how I think, for us to organize ourselves a little bit better… M: Did you see this? P: Yes, I saw it, I loved it. M: Of course you have. P: Of course. You know, with the few campaigns you have been working on, there was a tiny complaint by the client that you went over budget by quite a bit of money. Now, I know that they were not told in advance. It was 11 grand over budget. M: Oh come on, that’s nothing. You know that’s nothing. That’s a drop in the bucket to these people. P: But they were upset about it. And you know that we have to… M: Oh, hold on. P: …cater a little… M: I was buzzing, I just… P: Yeah, ok. M: Oh, oh it’s Scott and Abby. P: Miguel, let’s turn our cell phones off while we’re in the meeting if you don’t mind. M: Oh my god. No, I’m just kind of on cloud nine......

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...A PIECE OF BREAD (By Mrs. Wilma C. Aruelo) It’s been long years of sufferings and now I stood at the bar Of justice with my pale young face. “Am I guilty or not guilty”? It’s a question that always lingers on my minds. “I will tell you just how it was. My father and mother were dead. My little brothers and sisters were hungry and asked me for bread. At First I earned the bread by working hard all day. But somehow the times were hard and the work fell away. I could get no more work.” “That night the weather was bitter cold and my little brothers and sisters were crying, shivering and craving for food. My brother and I hurriedly rushed and asked a piece of bread from the saleslady but she pushed me, scolded me for I am nothing but jerk. So, I got a piece of bread and we ran away but….Bang! The gun went off and my brother fell dead. “Dino, no…., dino don’t die…. Here’s a piece of bread… I got it for you and our sisters….. Please don’t die...hu.hu.hu...” I dried my tears in a moment then looked at the judge’s eyes. “Am I guilty for stealing a piece of bread?” “What about you? Are you not guilty for killing my innocent brother? Everyone in the courtroom sprang their tears for they knew that I spoke the truth. May god forgive me for stealing a piece of bread....

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...They both Jump started the rise in population. The agricultural revolution happened first about 10,000 years ago. People began to grow crops, raise domestic animals, and live sedentary lifestyles. People began to live longer and produce more children. During the mid-1700s, the industrial revolution greatly increased population. It was a shift from an agricultural society to an urban society powered by fossil fuels. What is "the tragedy o the commons"? Explain how the concept might apply to an unregulated industry that is a source of water pollution? The tragedy of the commons was written by Garret Hardin. Hardin argued that unregulated exploitation would cause environmental depletion. What is environmental science? Name several disciplines involved in environmental science. Environmental Science is the study of how the natural world works and how humans and the environment interact. Environmental Science in an interdisciplinary field which requires expertise from ecology, earth science, chemistry, biology, economics, political science, demography, ethics, and others. Contrast the two meanings of science. Now name three applications of science. One description of science is a systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it. The term science is also commonly used to refer to the accumulated body of knowledge that arises from this dynamic process of observation, testing, and discovery. Developing Technology, to inform policy for management......

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...Royal Decree No.)M/8* 8Rabi' I-1428H–26 March 2007 Chapter One General Provisions Definitions Article (1): The following words and phrases, wherever mentioned in this Law, shall have the meanings assigned to them, unless the context requires otherwise: 1. Ministry: Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. 2. Minister: Minister of Communications and Information Technology. 3. Commission: Communications and Information Technology Commission. 4. Governor: Governor of the Communications and Information Technology Commission. 5. Regulations: Implementing Regulations of this Law. 6. Center: National Center for Digital Certification. 7. Computer: Any stationary or portable, wired or wireless, electronic device with a system for processing, storing, sending, receiving or browsing data, performing specific functions according to programs and given commands. 8. Person: Any natural or corporate person, whether public or private. 9. Electronic: Technology based on using electrical, electromagnetic, optical or similar capabilities. 10. Electronic Transactions: Any exchange, communication, contracting or other procedure, performed or executed, wholly or partially, by electronic means. 11. Electronic Data: Data with electronic features in the form of texts, codes, images, graphics, sounds or any other electronic form, either collective or separate. 12. Electronic Data System: One or more electronic devices or programs used...

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...COMPANY PROFILE In 1937, Abbott Philippines started out as an importer and local distributor of Abbott products, working out of its first office located at the Paz Guanzon building in Paco, Manila. After the war, Abbott Laboratories immediately answered the need for medicine and medical supplies by continuing its operations in the country. In 1957, Abbott set up a world-class manufacturing facility on an open lot locater at what now # 102 EDSA corner Madison Street, an address that has served as Abbott Philippines' home for the past 70 years. In response to the business demand for centralizing sourcing, Abbott Philippines closed down its local manufacturing facilities. On the other hand, its Sales and Marketing Operation were beefed up to ensure Abbott's continued competitiveness in the local pharmaceutical and nutritional market. New products were added to its portfolio as Abbott strived to provide the best possible choices to the local community. Abbott Philippines now offers a wide array of health care products, most of which have already become a household names in the country. Who would not know "Gain" and "Gain Plus", "Grow", "Cecon", "Ensure", "Klaricid OD", "Erythrocin", "Iberet", "Pedialyte", "Pediasure", and "Isomil" among others? In April 2001, Knoll Pharmaceuticals, the worldwide pharmaceutical business of BASF Pharma, was integrated into Abbott Philippines, adding into Abbott's already impressive line-up of pharmaceutical brands such medicines like......

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